La Grazia Inc. manufactures durable, safe, and elegant escalators and main components with reliance upon Italian taste and the world’s cutting-edge technology, compliant with global standards. This company creates eco-friendly masterpieces to meet the requirements of urban life by utilizing modern technology and up-to-date management systems.
Our escalators can be customized with different materials & extra options to suit customer’s needs & project specifications. La Grazia products can be manufactured to operate in every climate to meet the requirements of each individual environment and can be made to keep up with any project’s workload based on its utilization.
1. Escalator Classification Based on Utilization
Escalators are divided into two categories based on their utilization:
As can be understood from the name, this type of escalator is installed in commercial buildings, such as small and large shopping malls.
This type of escalator is utilized in high-traffic environments, such as subway stations, airports, train stations, overpasses, etc.
2. Escalator Classification Based on Installation Environment
Escalators are divided into three categories based on their area of installation:
Indoor escalators are used in closed environments where the ambient temperature is controlled and they are not exposed to elements such as rain and snow.
2.2. Semi Outdoor
These types of escalators are installed outside the building; nonetheless, a roof has been designated above them to protect against the direct downpour of rain and snow. Obviously, since these escalators are installed outside the building, they are not in a temperature-controlled environment, and therefore, based on the geographic location of the installation environment, in comparison to the indoor escalators, some extra options will be added to them, such as cooling system, which is used for high temperatures, heating system, which is used for low-temperature conditions, etc.
2.3. Fully Outdoor
These escalators are installed outside the building without any roof or other overhead covers. As a result, they are completely exposed to the elements, such as rain, snow, etc. These types of products will have a vast set of features, i.e. hot-dip galvanized truss treatment, higher protection rate for motor, and electromagnetic insulation, etc. Even though this type of device is capable of functioning in all weather conditions, it is recommended to install a roof over them for safety concerns. For example, in case the escalator is installed without a roof, the passengers may be forced to use it with their umbrellas spread over their heads in rainy or snowy conditions, which may cause them to lose balance or trip over.
To enhance the performance of the escalators, based on the geographical location and customer requirements, there are specific extra options to choose from. Please contact La Grazia for more information.
To install an escalator in projects, the following items should be considered:
1. Elevation Height (H)
Elevation Height is the difference between two building floor levels which is calculated from the finished surface level of the lower floor to the finished surface level of the upper floor.
2. Escalator Angle (A)
Escalator Angle can be either 30 or 35 degrees. Obviously, the 35-degree escalators need less horizontal length compared to the 30-degree. Please note that according to standards, for heights of more than 6 meters, only the 30-degree angle can be selected.
3. Escalator Width (a)
The standard escalator step widths are divided into three categories: 600 millimeters, 800 millimeters, and 1000 millimeters. The total device width (c) corresponding to each of the step widths is 1200 millimeters, 1400 millimeters, and 1600 millimeters respectively and the total construction pit width (d) corresponding to each of the step widths is 1260 millimeters, 1460 millimeters, and 1660 millimeters respectively.
4. Horizontal Length (L)
The horizontal length is determined based on the elevation height after choos¬ing the appropriate angle in accordance with the formula for each angle. The hor¬izontal length is equal to the distance between two construction beams located on the lower and upper floors.
5. Ceiling Opening (CO)
In order to install an escalator, an opening must be considered on the upper floor with suitable width and length. The opening width is equal to the total escala¬tor(s) width and the opening length must be designed in a way that the vertical height between steps tread surface under the available ceiling is never less than 2.30 meters. This vertical height must be considered to provide safe headroom for passengers.
NOTE: To calculate the ceiling opening length, the upper floor thickness (FT) is required.
6. Wellway Opening (WO)
In order to install an escalator, a pit with suitable width and length must be con¬sidered on the lower floor. The wellway width is equal to the total escalator(s) width and the length must be designed in a way that the lower section of the truss can be located beneath the surface of the lower floor. As a result, the escala¬tor floor plate will be at the same level as the lower floor finished surface.
7. Middle Support (Detail S)
For escalators with elevation heights of more than 6 meters, a middle support should be considered to prevent buckling in the middle section of the escalator
8. Number of Horizontal Steps
For the safety of passengers, there must be a number of horizontal steps at the entrance and exit of each escalator. This allows users to stabilize and maintain their balance upon entering and exiting the escalator by placing their feet on a suitable horizontal surface. The minimum required horizontal steps in the en¬trance and exit of each escalator must be 2 and a maximum of 4.
9. Nominal Speed of Escalator
According to EN 115-1:2017, the nominal speed must not exceed 0.75 m/s for an escalator with a 30-degree angle of inclination. On the other hand, for an esca¬lator with a 35-degree angle of inclination, the nominal speed must not exceed 0.5 m/s. The most common nominal speed for commercial escalators with both 30 and 35 angles of inclination, is 0.5 m/s, and in infrastructure with a 30-degree angle of inclination, the nominal speed can deviate to 0.65 m/s.
10. Exerted Loads on Building Structure
The loads which escalators exert on building structure include escalator self-weight, live load, and dynamic load. A margin of safety is then calculated and added to the total load. The final result is exerted in up to 3 locations.
The two main loads (R1 – R2) are exerted on the construction beams designed in upper and lower floors (Detail G). For escalators with elevation heights of more than 6 meters, a middle support should be considered to prevent buckling in the middle section. The third load (R3) is exerted on the middle support.
Escalator Type: GRZ – ESS – 35° – H ≤ 6000
Escalator Type: GRZ – ESS+ – 30° – H ≤ 6000
Escalator Type: GRZ – ESL – 30° – 6000 < H ≤ 9000
Middle Support (Detail S)
Construction Beam (Detail G)
Suspension Point Detail (Detail Z)
Escalator Width Measurements